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(Chemistry Ch-1) 1. Nature of Matter

  • Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
  • Three physical states of matter
  • Characteristics of solid
    • Definite volume
    • Definite shape
  • Characteristics of liquid
    • Definite volume
    • Indefinite shape
  • Characteristics of gas
    • Indefinite volume
    • Indefinite shape
  • Arrangement of particles in the three states
  • Inter-conversion between the three states

  • Classification of matter in macroscopic level
  • Mixtures
    • Components are present in any ratio.
    • Homogeneous mixture − Uniform composition throughout the mixture.
    • Heterogeneous mixture − Non-uniform composition throughout the mixture.
    • Components can be separated by physical methods such as hand picking, filtration, crystallization, distillation, etc.
  • Pure substances
    • Fixed composition
    • Constituents cannot be separated by simple physical methods.
    • Elements contain only one type of particles − atoms (example Na, K, Cu, C, Ag) or molecules [Example: H2, N2, O2, F2]
    • Compounds are formed by the combination of two or more atoms of different elements. [Example: water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2)]
    • Constituents of compounds cannot be separated by physical methods; they can be separated by chemical methods only.

Add to your knowledge
Apart from solid, liquid and gas there are two other states of matter. These are:
  • Plasma
  • Bose-Einstein Condensate
  • State consisting of super-energetic and super-excited particles
  • Particles are in ionised conditions
  • Example: Helium gas present inside a fluorescent tube ionises when electric charge is applied
Bose-Einstein Condensate
  • Consists of super-unenergetic and super-cold particles
  • Formed when a gas of extremely lower density is cooled to extremely low pressure
  • Can be created with few elements, such as rubidium


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